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Clustering

Clustering in eZ Platform refers to setting up your installation with several web servers for handling more load and/or for failover.

Server setup overview

This diagram illustrates how clustering in eZ Platform is typically set up. The parts illustrate the different roles needed for a successful cluster setup.

Server setup for clustering

The number of web servers, Memcached/Redis, Solr, Varnish, Database and NFS servers, as well as whether some servers play several of these roles (typically running Memcached/Redis across the web server) is up to you and your performance needs.

The minimal requirements are:

  • Shared HTTP cache (using Varnish)
  • Shared persistence cache and sessions (using Memcached or Redis)
  • Shared database (using MySQL/MariaDB)
  • Shared filesystem (using NFS, or S3)

For further details on requirements, see Requirements page.

Note

Memcached must not be bound to the local address if clusters are in use, or user logins will fail. To avoid this, in /etc/memcached.conf take a look under # Specify which IP address to listen on. The default is to listen on all IP addresses

For development environments, change the address below this comment in /etc/memcached.conf to -l 0.0.0.0

For production environments, follow this more secure instruction from the Memcached man:

-l <addr>

Listen on <addr>; default to INADDR_ANY. <addr> may be specified as host:port. If you don't specify a port number, the value you specified with -p or -U is used. You may specify multiple addresses separated by comma or by using -l multiple times. This is an important option to consider as there is no other way to secure the installation. Binding to an internal or firewalled network interface is suggested.

It is also recommended to use:

  • Solr for better search and performance
  • a CDN for improved performance and faster ping time worldwide
  • active/passive database for failover
  • more recent versions of PHP and MySQL/MariaDB within what is supported for your eZ Platform version to get more performance out of each server. Numbers might vary so make sure to test this when upgrading.

DFS IO handler

The DFS IO handler (legacy_dfs_cluster) can be used to store binary files on an NFS server. It will use a database to manipulate metadata, making up for the potential inconsistency of network-based filesystems.

Configuring the DFS IO handler

You need to configure both metadata and binarydata handlers.

As the binarydata handler, create a new Flysystem local adapter configured to read/write to the NFS mount point on each local server. As metadata handler, create a DFS one, configured with a Doctrine connection.

For production, we strongly recommend creating the DFS table in its own database, using the vendor/ezsystems/ezpublish-kernel/data/mysql/dfs_schema.sql file. In our example, we will use one named dfs.

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# new Doctrine connection for the DFS legacy_dfs_cluster metadata handler.
doctrine:
    dbal:
        connections:
            dfs:
                driver: pdo_mysql
                host: 127.0.0.1
                port: 3306
                dbname: ezdfs
                user: root
                password: "rootpassword"
                charset: UTF8

# define the Flysystem handler
oneup_flysystem:
    adapters:
        nfs_adapter:
            local:
                directory: "/<path to nfs>/$var_dir$/$storage_dir$"

# define the eZ Platform handlers
ez_io:
    binarydata_handlers:
        nfs:
            flysystem:
                adapter: nfs_adapter
    metadata_handlers:
        dfs:
            legacy_dfs_cluster:
                connection: doctrine.dbal.dfs_connection

# set the application handlers
ezpublish:
    system:
        default:
            io:
                metadata_handler: dfs
                binarydata_handler: nfs

Tip

If you are looking to set up S3 or other Flysystem/third-party adapters like Google Cloud Storage, this needs to be configured as binary handler. The rest here will still stay the same, the DFS metadata handler will take care of caching the lookups to avoid slow IO lookups.

Customizing the storage directory

Earlier versions required the NFS adapter directory to be set to $var_dir$/$storage_dir$ part for the NFS path. This is no longer required (unless you plan to use Legacy Bridge), but the default prefix used to serve binary files still matches this expectation.

If you decide to change this setting, make sure you also set io.url_prefix to a matching value. If you set the NFS adapter's directory to /path/to/nfs/storage, use this configuration so that the files can be served by Symfony:

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ezpublish:
    system:
        default:
            io:
                url_prefix: "storage"

As an alternative, you may serve images from NFS using a dedicated web server. If in the example above, this server listens on http://static.example.com/ and uses /path/to/nfs/storage as the document root, configure io.url_prefix as follows:

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ezpublish:
    system:
        default:
            io:
                url_prefix: "http://static.example.com/"

You can read more about that on Binary files URL handling.

Web server rewrite rules

The default eZ Platform rewrite rules will let image requests be served directly from disk. In a cluster setup, files matching ^/var/([^/]+/)?storage/images(-versioned)?/.* have to be passed through /web/app.php instead.

In any case, this specific rewrite rule must be placed before the ones that "ignore" image files and just let the web server serve the files directly.

Apache

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RewriteRule ^/var/([^/]+/)?storage/images(-versioned)?/.* /app.php [L]

Place this before the standard image rewrite rule in your vhost config (or uncomment if already there).

nginx

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rewrite "^/var/([^/]+/)?storage/images(-versioned)?/(.*)" "/app.php" break;

Place this before the include of ez_params.d/ez_rewrite_params in your vhost config (or uncomment if already there).

Migrating to a cluster setup

If you are migrating an existing single-server site to a cluster setup, and not setting up clustering from scratch, you need to migrate your files. Once you have configured your binarydata and metadata handlers, you can run the ezplatform:io:migrate-files command. You can also use it when you are migrating from one data handler to another, e.g. from NFS to Amazon S3.

This command shows which handlers are configured:

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> php app/console ezplatform:io:migrate-files --list-io-handlers
Configured meta data handlers: default, dfs, aws_s3
Configured binary data handlers: default, nfs, aws_s3

You can do the actual migration like this:

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> php app/console ezplatform:io:migrate-files --from=default,default --to=dfs,nfs --env=prod

The --from and --to values must be specified as <metadata_handler>,<binarydata_handler>. If --from is omitted, the default IO configuration will be used. If --to is omitted, the first non-default IO configuration will be used.

Tip

The command must be executed with the same permissions as the web server.

While the command is running, the files should not be modified. To avoid surprises you should create a backup and/or execute a dry run before doing the actual update, using the --dry-run switch.

Since this command can run for a very long time, to avoid memory exhaustion run it in the production environment using the --env=prod switch.

Clustering using Amazon AWS S3

See Setting up Amazon AWS S3 clustering.

Binary files clustering

eZ Platform supports multi-server setups by means of custom IO handlers. They make sure that files are correctly synchronized among the multiple clients that might use the data.

Read the Docs