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Permissions

Permission overview

A new User does not have permissions for any part of the system, unless they are explicitly given access. To get access they need to inherit Roles, typically assigned to the User Group they belong to.

Each Role can contain one or more Policies. A Policy is a rule that gives access to a single function in a module. For example, a section/assign Policy allows the User to assign content to Sections.

When you add a Policy to a Role, you can also restrict it using one or more Limitations. A Policy with a Limitation will only apply when the condition in the Limitation is fulfilled. For example, a content/publish Policy with a ContentType Limitation on the "Blog Post" Content Type will allow the User to publish only Blog Posts, and not other Content.

A Limitation, like a Policy, specifies what a User can do, not what they can't do. A Section Limitation, for example, gives the User access to the selected Section, not prohibits it.

See Available Limitations for further information.

Combining Policies

Policies on one Role are connected with the and relation, not or, so when Policy has more than one Limitation, all of them have to apply.

If you want to combine more than one Limitation with the or relation, not and, you can split your Policy in two, each with one of these Limitations.

Assigning Roles to Users

Every User or User Group can have many roles. A User can also belong to many groups, for example, Administrators, Editors, Subscribers.

It is best practice to avoid assigning Roles to users directly. Instead, try to organize your content so that it can be covered with general roles assigned to User Groups.

Using Groups is easier to manage and more secure. It also improves system performance. The more Role assignments and complex Policies you add for a given User, the more complex the search/load queries will be, because they always take permissions into account.

Use Cases

Here are a few examples of sets of Policies you can use to get some common permission configurations.

Enter back end interface

To allow the User to enter the Back Office interface and view all content, you need to set the following Policies:

  • user/login
  • content/read
  • content/versionread
  • section/view
  • content/reverserelatedlist

These Policies will be necessary for all other cases below that require access to the content structure.

Create and publish content

To create and publish content, the user must additionally have the following Policies:

  • content/create
  • content/edit
  • content/publish

This also lets the user copy and move content, as well as add new Locations to a Content item (but not remove them!).

Create content without publishing

This option can be used together with eZ Enterprise's content review options. Using the following Policies, the User is able to create content, but can't publish it; instead, they must send it for review to another User with proper permissions (for example, senior editor, proofreader, etc.).

  • content/create
  • content/edit

Note that without eZ Enterprise this setup should not be used, as it will not allow the User to continue working with their content.

Restrict editing to part of the tree

If you want to let the User create or edit content, but only in one part of the content tree, you need to use Limitations. Three Limitations that could be used here are Section Limitation, Location Limitation and Subtree of Location Limitation.

Let's assume you have two Folders under your Home: Blog and Articles. You can let a User create content for the blogs, but not in Articles by adding a Subtree of Location Limitation on the Blog Content item. This will allow the User to publish content anywhere under this Location in the structure.

A Section Limitation can be used similarly, but a Section does not have to belong to the same Subtree of Location in the content structure, any Locations can be assigned to it.

If you add a Location Limitation and point to the same Location, the User will be able to publish content directly under the selected Location, but not anywhere deeper in its Subtree of Location.

Multi-file upload

Creating content through multi-file upload is treated in the same way as regular creation. To enable upload, you need you set the following permissions:

  • content/create
  • content/read
  • content/publish

You can control what Content items can be uploaded and where using Limitations on the content/create and content/publish Policies.

A Location Limitation limits uploading to a specific Location in the tree. A Content Type Limitation controls the Content Types that are allowed. For example, you can set the Location Limitation on a Pictures Folder, and add a Content Type Limitation which only allows Content items of type Image. This ensures that only files of type image can be uploaded, and only to the Pictures Folder.

Manage Locations

To add a new Location to a Content item, the Policies required for publishing content are enough. To allow the User to remove a Location, you need to grant them the following Policies:

  • content/remove
  • content/manage_locations

Hiding and revealing Location requires one more Policy: content/hide.

Removing content

To send content to trash, the User needs to have the content/remove Policy.

To remove an archived version of content, the User must have the content/versionremove Policy.

Further manipulation of trash requires the content/restore Policy to restore items from trash, and content/cleantrash to completely delete all content from the trash.

Caution

With the content/cleantrash Policy, the User can empty the trash even if they do not have access to the trashed content, e.g. because it belonged to a Section they do not have permissions for.

Registering Users

To allow anonymous users to register through the /register route, you need to grant the user/register Policy to the Anonymous User Group.

Admin

To access the Admin in the Back Office the User must have the setup/administrate Policy. This will allow the User to view the Languages and Content Types.

Additional Policies are needed for each section of the Admin.

System Information
  • setup/system_info to view the System Information tab
Sections
  • section/view to see and access the Section list
  • section/edit to add and edit Sections
  • section/assign to assign Sections to content
Languages
  • content/translations to add and edit languages
Content Types/action
  • Content Type/create, Content Type/update, Content Type/delete to add, modify and remove Content Types
Object States
  • state/administrate to view a list of Object States, add and edit them
  • state/assign to assign Objects States to Content
Roles
  • role/read to view the list of Roles in Admin
  • role/create, role/update, role/assign and role/delete to manage Roles
Users
  • content/view to view the list of Users

Users are treated like other content, so to create and modify them the User needs to have the same permissions as for managing other Content items.

Enterprise

Editorial workflows

You can control which stages in an editorial workflow the user can work with.

Do this by adding the WorkflowStageLimitation to content Policies such as content/edit or content/publish.

You can also control which transitions the user can pass content through. Do this by using the workflow/change_stage Policy together with the WorkflowTransitionLimitation.

For example, to enable the user to edit only content in the "Design" stage and to pass it after creating design to the "Proofread stage", use following permissions:

  • content/edit with WorkflowStageLimitation set to "Design".
  • workflow/change_stage with WorkflowTransitionLimitation set to to_proofreading

Available Policies

Module Function Effect
all modules all functions grant all available permissions
content read view the content both in front and back end
diff unused
view_embed view content embedded in another Content item (even when the User is not allowed to view it as an individual Content item)
create create new content. Note: even without this Policy the User is able to enter edit mode, but cannot finalize work with the Content item.
edit edit existing content
publish publish content. Without this Policy, the User can only save drafts or send them for review (in eZ Enterprise)
manage_locations remove Locations and send content to Trash
hide hide and reveal content Locations
reverserelatedlist see all content that a Content item relates to (even when the User is not allowed to view it as an individual Content items)
translate unused
remove remove Locations and send content to Trash
versionread view content after publishing, and to preview any content in the Page mode
versionremove remove archived content versions
translations manage the language list in Admin
urltranslator manage URL aliases of a Content item
pendinglist unused
restore restore content from Trash
cleantrash empty the trash (even when the User does not have access to individual Content items)
Content Type update modify existing Content Types. Also required to create new Content Types
create create new Content Types. Also required to edit exiting Content Types
delete delete Content Types
state assign assign Object States to Content items
administrate view, add and edit Object States
role assign assign roles to Users and User Groups
update modify existing Roles
create create new Roles
delete delete Roles
read view the Roles list in Admin. Required for all other role-related Policies
section assign assign Sections to content
edit edit existing Sections and create new ones
view view the Sections list in Admin. Required for all other section-related Policies
setup administrate access Admin
install unused
setup unused
system_info view the System information tab in Admin
user login log in to the application
password unused
preferences access and set user preferences
register register using the /register route
selfedit unused
activation unused
workflow change_stage change stage in the specified workflow

Permissions for custom controllers

You can control access to a custom controller by implementing the performAccessCheck() method.

In the following example the user does not have access to the controller unless they have the section/view Policy:

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use eZ\Publish\Core\MVC\Symfony\Security\Authorization\Attribute;

public function performAccessCheck(): void
{
    parent:performAccessCheck();
    $this->denyAccessUnlessGranted(new Attribute('section', 'view'));
}

Attribute accepts three arguments:

  • module is the Policy module (e.g. content)
  • function is the function inside the module (e.g. read)
  • limitations are optional limitations to check against. Here you can provide two keys:
    • valueObject is the object you want to check for, for example ContentInfo.
    • targets are a table of value objects that are the target of the operation. For example, to check if Content can be assigned to a Section, provide the Section as targets. targets accept Location, Object State and Section objects.

Checking user access

To check if a user has access to an operation, use the isGranted() method. For example, to check if Content can be assigned to a section:

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$hasAccess = $this->isGranted(
    new Attribute( 'section', 'assign', array( 'valueObject' => $contentInfo, 'targets' => $section ) )
);

You can also use the permission resolver (eZ\Publish\API\Repository\PermissionResolver). The canUser() method checks if the user can perform a given action with the selected object.

For example: canUser('content', 'edit', $content, $location ); checks the content/edit permission for the provided Content item at the provided Location.

Blocking access to controller action

To block access to a specific action of the controller, add the following to the action's definition:

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$this->denyAccessUnlessGranted(new Attribute('state', 'administrate'));
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